Volume 12, Issue 2 (3-2022)                   مسائل اجتماعی ایران 2022, 12(2): 155-178 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Taleban M R. Religion and Suicide in Iran (Comparative Internal Analysis). مسائل اجتماعی ایران. 2022; 12 (2) :155-178
URL: http://jspi.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3413-en.html
Imam Khomeini Research Institute and the Islamic Revolution
Abstract:   (242 Views)
The relationship between religion and suicide has long been studied by social scientists, especially sociologists. In the present article, by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature in this field of study, at first, the mechanisms of relationship between the religion and suicide are explained and then the main hypothesis of the research was evaluated empirically with secondary data of Iran through an inter-country comparative analysis with the provincial analysis unit.
The findings of this study showed that the main hypothesis in sociological theoretical views that "religion has a protective or reducing effect against suicide" in the context of the Muslim community in Iran is also fully confirmed empirically. More precisely, when the effects of three influential variables on suicide at the systemic level, namely socio-economic development; Family integration, and social disorder were controlled; the net effect of religion on suicide in the provinces of Iran was significantly reduced, indicating the fact that religion had a significant protective effect on suicide. This finding fully indicates the net and independent effect of religion on suicide in the provinces of Iran and is an empirical support for the thesis that religion can play the role of a shield or protector against suicide by promoting coping with the suffering of life and thus, reduce the risk of suicide.
Full-Text [PDF 454 kb]   (137 Downloads)    
Type of Study: پژوهشی |
Received: 2020/09/8 | Accepted: 2021/05/23 | Published: 2022/03/1

1. دوركیم، امیل (1378). خودکشی. نادر سالارزاده امیری، تهران: دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
2. دوركیم، امیل (1383). صور ابتدایی حیات دینی. نادر سالارزاده امیری، تهران: دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
3. دفتر مطالعات اقتصادی مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس (1397). خط فقر ایران در سال 1395 و مروری بر روش محاسبۀ آن. گزارش شماره 16159، آذر 1397.
4. صالحی، محمدجواد (1397). رتبه‌بندی استان‌های کشور بر اساس شاخص‌های توسعه انسانی و سرمایۀ انسانی. فصلنامۀ پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی در آموزش عالی، دورۀ 24، شمارۀ 1: 27 الی 49.
5. طالبان، محمدرضا (1400). چرا زنان دین‌دارتر از مردان‌اند؟ (پژوهشی در میان ایرانیان مسلمان). فصلنامۀ علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، زیر چاپ.
6. علیوردی‌نیا، اکبر (1399). خودکشی در ایران. تهران: آگاه.
7. موج سوم پیمایش ارزش‌ها و نگرش‌های ایرانیان (1395). تهران: دفتر طرح‌های ملی پژوهشگاه فرهنگ، هنر و ارتباطات، وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی.
8. Abdel-Khalek, A. (2004) Neither altruistic suicide, nor terrorism but martyrdom: A Muslim Perspective, Archives of Suicide Research, 8 (1) 99-113. [DOI:10.1080/13811110490243840]
9. Bainbridge, W. S. (1989) The religious ecology of deviance, American Sociological Review, 54: 288-295. [DOI:10.2307/2095796]
10. Baier, C. & B. R. E. Wright (2001) If you love me keep my commandments: A meta-analysis of the effect of religion on crime, Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency, 38: 3-21. [DOI:10.1177/0022427801038001001]
11. Bankston, W. B., H. D. Allen, & D. S. Cunningham (1983) Religion and suicide: A research note on sociology's one law, Social Forces, 62: 521-528. [DOI:10.2307/2578320]
12. Bertolote, J. M. & A. Fleishmann (2002) A global perspective in the epidemiology of suicide, Suicidologi, 7: 6-8. [DOI:10.5617/suicidologi.2330]
13. Boudon, Raymond (1998) "Social Mechanisms without Black Boxes" in Hedström, Peter and Richard Swedberg (eds.) Social Mechanisms. An Analytical Approach to Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511663901.008]
14. Breault, K. (1986) Suicide in America: A test of Durkheim's theory of religious and family integration 1933-1980, American Journal of Sociology, 92 (3) 628-656. [DOI:10.1086/228544]
15. Breault, K. (1988) Beyond the quick and dirty: Problems associated with analyses based on small samples of large ecological aggregates: Reply to Girard, American Journal of Sociology, 93: 1479-1486. [DOI:10.1086/228909]
16. Breault, K. (1994) "Was Durkheim right? A critical survey of the empirical literature on Le Suicide", In L. David (Ed.) Emile Durkheim Le Suicide, 100 Years Later, pp: 11-29, Philadelphia, PA: Charles Press.
17. Burr, W., P. McCall & E. Powell- Griner, (1994) Catholic religion and suicide: The mediating effect of divorce, Social Science Quarterly, 75: 300-318.
18. Cheng, A., T. Chen, C. Chen & R. Jenkins (2000) Psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors for suicide: Case-control psychological autopsy study, British Journal of Psychiatry, 177: 360-365. [DOI:10.1192/bjp.177.4.360]
19. Colucci, E. & G. Martin (2008) Religion and spirituality along the suicidal path, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 38: 229-244. [DOI:10.1521/suli.2008.38.2.229]
20. Cutright, P. & R. M. Fernquist (2000) Social integration, culture and period: Their impact on female age specific suicide rates in 20 developed countries 1955-1989, Sociological Focus, 33: 299-319. [DOI:10.1080/00380237.2000.10571172]
21. Cutright, P. & R. M. Fernquist (2001) The relative gender gap in suicide: Social integration, the culture of suicide, and period effects in 20 developed countries 1955-1994, Social Science Research, 30: 76-99. [DOI:10.1006/ssre.2000.0691]
22. Cutright, P. & R. M. Fernquist (2008) Three explanations of marital status differences in suicide rates: Social integration, marital status integration, and the culture of suicide, Omega, 56: 175-190. [DOI:10.2190/OM.56.2.c]
23. Cutright, P., S. Stack & R. Fernquist, (2007) Marital status integration, suicide disapproval, and social integration as explanations of marital status differences in female age specific suicide rates, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 37: 715-724. [DOI:10.1521/suli.2007.37.6.715]
24. Dervic, K., M. A. Oquendo, Grunebaum,, M. F. Ellis, A. K. Burke & J. J. Mann (2004) Religious affiliation and suicide attempt, American Journal of Psychiatry, 161 (12) 2303-2308. [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.12.2303]
25. Durkheim, E. (1897) Suicide, New York: Free Press.
26. Ellison, C. G., J. Burr, & P. McCall (1997) Suicide homogeneity and metropolitan suicide rates, Social Forces, 76: 273-299. [DOI:10.2307/2580326]
27. Fernquist, R. & P.Cutright, (1998) Social integration and age standardized suicide rates in 21 developed countries 1955-1989, Social Science Research, 27: 109-127. [DOI:10.1006/ssre.1998.0615]
28. Fernquist, R. (2003) Does the level of divorce or religiosity make a difference? Cross- national suicide rates in 21 developed countries 1955-1994, Archives of Suicide Research, 7: 265-277. [DOI:10.1080/13811110301554]
29. Fernquist, R. (2007) How do Durkheimian variables impact variation in national suicide rates when proxies for depression and alcoholism are controlled?, Archives of Suicide Research, 11: 361-374. [DOI:10.1080/13811110600897226]
30. Gearing, Robin Edward & Dana Alonzo (2018) Religion and Suicide: New Findings, Journal of Religion and Health, 57: 2478-2499. [DOI:10.1007/s10943-018-0629-8]
31. Greening, L. & L. Stoppelbein (2002) Religiosity, attribution style, and social support as buffers for African American and white adolescents' perceived risk for suicide, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32: 404-417. [DOI:10.1521/suli.32.4.404.22333]
32. Girard, C. (1988) Church membership and suicide reconsidered, comment on Breault, American Journal of Sociology, 93: 1471-1486. [DOI:10.1086/228908]
33. Gould, M. S., P. Fisher, M. Parides, M. Flory & D. Shaffer (1996) Psychosocial risk factors of child and adolescent completed suicides, Archives of General Psychiatry, 53: 1155-1162. [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830120095016]
34. Hedstrom, Peter (2005) Dissecting the Social: on the Principles of Analytical Sociology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511488801]
35. Hilton, S. C., G. W. Fellingham & J. L. Lyon (2002) Suicide rates and religious commitment in young adult males in Utah, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 155 (5) 413-419. [DOI:10.1093/aje/155.5.413]
36. Hoffmann, John and Stephen Bahr (2006) "Crime/Deviance", in: Handbooks of Religion and Social Institutions, Edited by Helen Rose Ebaugh, Springer Science Media, Inc., pp:241-263. [DOI:10.1007/0-387-23789-5_12]
37. Ineichen, Bernard (1998) The influence of religion on the suicide rate: Islam and Hinduism Compared, Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 1: 31-36. [DOI:10.1080/13674679808406495]
38. Kamal, Z., & K. M. Loewenthal (2002) Suicide beliefs and behavior among young Muslims and Hindus in the UK, Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 5 (2) 111-118. [DOI:10.1080/13674670210141052]
39. Koenig, H. G., M. E. McCullough & D. B. Larson (2001) Handbook of Religion and Health, New York: Oxford University Press. [DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118667.001.0001]
40. Lester, D. (2000) Why People Kill Themselves. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
41. Linehan, M. M., J. L. Goodstein, S. L. Nielsen & J. A. Chiles (1983) Reasons for staying alive when you are thinking of killing yourself: The reasons for living inventory, Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 51: 276-286. [DOI:10.1037/0022-006X.51.2.276]
42. Malone, K. M., G. L. Haas, J. A. Sweeny & J. J. Mann (1995) Major depression and the risk of attempted suicide, Journal of Affective Disorders, 34: 173-185. [DOI:10.1016/0165-0327(95)00015-F]
43. Mann, J. J. (2002) A current perspective of suicide and attempted suicide, Annals of Internal Medicine, 136: 302-311. [DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-136-4-200202190-00010]
44. Mann, J. J., J. Bortinger, M. A. Oquendo, D. Currier, S. Li & D. A. Brent (2005) Family history of suicidal behavior and mood disorders in propends with mood disorders, American Journal of Psychiatry, 162 (9) 1672-1679. [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.9.1672]
45. Morselli, H. (1882) Suicide: An essay on comparative moral statistics, New York: Appleton.
46. Neeleman, J., D. Halpern, D. Leon & G. Lewis (1997) Tolerance of suicide, religion, and suicide rates: An ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries, Psychological Medicine, 27: 1165-1171. [DOI:10.1017/S0033291797005357]
47. Pescosolido, Bernice and Sharon Georgianna (1989) Durkheim, Suicide, and Religion: Toward a Network Theory of Suicide, American Sociological Review, 54 (1) 33-48. [DOI:10.2307/2095660]
48. Pescosolido, Bernice (1990) The social context of religious integration and suicide: Pursuing the networks explanation, Sociological Quarterly, 31, 337-357. [DOI:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1990.tb00332.x]
49. Pinto, A., M. A. Whisman & Y. Conwell (1998) Reasons for living in a clinical sample of adolescents, Journal of Adolescence, 21: 397-405. [DOI:10.1006/jado.1998.0173]
50. Pope, W. & N. Danigelis, (1981) Sociology's one law, Social Forces, 60, 495-516. [DOI:10.2307/2578447]
51. Oquendo, M., C. Waternaux, B. Brodsky, B. Parsons, G. L. Haas, K. M. Malone, et al. (2000) Suicidal behavior in bipolar mood disorder: Clinical characteristics of attempters and non-attempters, Journal of Affective Disorders, 59: 107-117. [DOI:10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00129-9]
52. Sadique, Kim (2016) "The Effect of Religion on Crime and Deviancy", in: Religion, Faith and Crime, Edited by Kim Sadique & Perry Stanislas, Palgrave Macmillan, pp:21-44. [DOI:10.1057/978-1-137-45620-5_2]
53. Shneidman, E. S. & N. L. Farberow (1957) Some comparisons between genuine and simulated suicide notes in terms of Mowrer's concepts of discomfort and relief, Journal of General Psychology, 56: 251-256. [DOI:10.1080/00221309.1957.9920335]
54. Simpson, M. & G. Conklin (1989) Socioeconomic development, suicide and religion: A test of Durkheim's theory of religion and suicide, Social Forces, 67, 945-964. [DOI:10.2307/2579709]
55. Stack, Steven (1982) Suicide: A decade review of the sociological literature, Deviant Behavior, 4: 41-66. [DOI:10.1080/01639625.1982.9967602]
56. Stack, Steven (1983) The Effect of Religious Commitment on Suicide: A Cross-National Analysis, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24 (4) 362-374. [DOI:10.2307/2136402]
57. Stack, Steven (1989) The impact of divorce on suicide in Norway 1951-1980, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 5: 229-237. [DOI:10.2307/352383]
58. Stack, Steven (1991) The effect of religiosity on suicide in Sweden: A time series analysis. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30: 462-468. [DOI:10.2307/1387280]
59. Stack, Steven (1992) The effect of divorce on suicide in Finland: A time series analysis, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54: 636-642. [DOI:10.2307/353249]
60. Stack, Steven (2000) Suicide: A 15-Year Review of the Sociological Literature, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 30 (2) 163-176.
61. Stack, Steven and Augustine Kposowa (2011) "Religion and Suicide: Integrating Four Theories Cross- nationally", in: International Handbook of Suicide Prevention, Edited by Rory O'Connor, Stephen Platt, Jacki Gordon, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp: 235-252. [DOI:10.1002/9781119998556.ch14]
62. Stark, Rodney (1996) Religion as context: Hellfire and delinquency one more time, Sociology and Religion, 57: 163-173. [DOI:10.2307/3711948]
63. Stark, Rodney (2001) Gods, rituals, and the moral order, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40: 619-636. [DOI:10.1111/0021-8294.00081]
64. Stark, Rodney, Daniel Doyle & Jesse Lynn Rushing (1983) Beyond Durkheim: Religion and Suicide, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 22 (2) 120-131. [DOI:10.2307/1385672]
65. Stark, Rodney & W. S. Bainbridge (1996) Religion, deviance, and social control, New York: Routledge.
66. Stark, Rodney & Roger Finke (2000) Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion, Berkeley: University of California Press.
67. Szanto, K., B. H. Mulsant, P. Houck, M. A. Dew & C. F. Reynolds (2003) Occurrence and course of suicidality during short-term treatment of late-life depression, Archives of General Psychiatry, 60: 610-617. [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.60.6.610]
68. van Tubergen, F., M. Grotenhuis & W. Ultee (2005) Denomination, religious context, and suicide: Neo-Durkheimian multilevel explanations tested with individual and contextual data, American Journal of Sociology, 111: 797-823. [DOI:10.1086/497307]
69. Worchel, Dana & Robin Gearing (2010) Suicide assessment and treatment, Springer Publishing Company.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Social Problems of Iran

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb